Prederiy, I. 100 sieve). Expansion forces determined for the steel slag samples are shown in Table 12.2. FHWA-RD-97-148. The shape of each individual particle makes nickel slag ideal for the efficient removal of mill scale, rust or existing coatings from steel and other metals in preparation for fabrication or painting. Fig. The specific gravity of air-cooled nickel slag may be as high as 3.5 (15), while the absorption is quite low (0.37 percent). show that nickel and copper are finely disseminated in the iron silicate matrix, which makes the enrichment of nickel and copper difficult. Substances . Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in nonferrous slag. Nickel-Steel alloy is the most important among all the steel alloys due to its use in various places all around the world. Mix proposition of the concrete containing steel/nickel slag coarse aggregate, Ravindra K. Dhir OBE, ... Chao Qun Lye, in Sustainable Construction Materials: Copper Slag, 2017. The blending of HMNS can provide a large number of silicate ingredients for the fly ash–based AAC, and thus the Si/Al ratio of the gel phase increases with HMNS content. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Where the uranium content of the original ore is sufficiently high to the level of commercial exploitation, additional treatment and processing of tailings should take place using hydrometallurgy (mainly acid leaching) to recover uranium concentrates. (2011). T. Kovacs, ... R. Doherty, in Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction, 2017. Its CAS number is 11110-39-7. Accelerated laboratory testing was completed on the Marshall and Superpave HMA mixtures with the use of an APA to further assess their performance characteristics. Table 12.1. Journal of Mining and Metallurgy B: Metallurgy, 49(1), 9-12. It is often difficult to ascertain judicious relationships between test results and practical values. The following shows the chemical composition of the slag and chemical characterization by solubilization and donated by the company producing the material. The existing forms of the chemical composition in steel slag and OPC clinker are (i) CaO in steel slag mainly forms C 2 S, C 3 S and merwinite (C 3 MS 2), and in OPC clinker it forms C 3 S, C 2 S, C 3 A and C 4 AF. The gradations of coarse and fine AC and EP slags after crushing are summarized in Table 14.15. It was estimated by Gorai et al. In terms of chemical compositions, nickel slag is very siliceous that may contain up to 50–55% silica and has high magnesium content. Concrete containing steel slag coarse aggregate after autoclave testing. The gradation analyses were carried out in accordance with the ASTM C136 test method for sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregate. Table 5.2. From the results presented in Table 12.3, the disruption ratios for all samples are zero. When formed at one temperature and then deformed at a lower one, it regains its original form when reheated. Table 3.4 presents the basic physical and mechanical properties of crushed air-cooled nickel slag. The chemical composition of slag varies with the types of furnace or process of treatment (Cooper, 2005). If slag is not removed in these type of application, then crevices and accelerated corrosion can result. The utilization of nickel slag has attracted much attention due to its high-content of valuable elements. The concrete specimens have shown high strength and acceptable volumetric stability. 12.11 shows a concrete slice containing BOF-2 slag after 3 h of autoclave testing at 357 kPa, 137°C. In terms of mineralogical properties, nickel slag, essentially made up of a major vitreous phase concentrated in the smallest particles and of a much lesser crystalline phase, is particularly present in the larger particles. Dealing with non-ferrous slags, including copper, nickel and phosphorus slags, a report of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA, 2012) states that the use of these high-stability and load-bearing capacity slags would generally exceed the relevant requirements of specifications for construction of embankments and fill, and thereby these materials can provide good load transfer to weaker subgrades. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The two air-cooled slag samples were divided into four size fractions: passing 19.0 mm (3/4 in.) Particle-disruption ratio has been proposed as a criterion and a test procedure incorporated in the deduction of a usability criterion for slag use (Wang, Wang, & Gao, 2010). It is more porous, with lower specific gravity and higher absorption, than air-cooled nicked slag. Nickels are actually made mostly of copper. Membranes offer high specific surface area and nitrate removal efficiencies, but they have high operating costs. In OPC clinker, Al 2 O 3 forms calcium aluminate and calcium aluminoferrite. They can neither directly indicate if a slag can be successfully used in an application nor accurately predict the end product characteristics. Fig. User guidelines for waste and by-product materials in pavement construction. The approximate element composition of this material is as follows: Ingredients Chemical formula Typical % CAS # by weight Iron Oxide Fe 2 O 3 + FeO 30 - 37 1309-37-1 Amorphous Silica SiO 2 (total) 32 - 42 61790-53-2 Aluminum Oxide AL 2 O 3 3 - 10 1344-28-1 Magnesium Oxide MgO 5 - 12 1309-48-4 Calcium Oxide CaO 3 - 6 1305-78-8 Chromium Oxide Cr 2 O However, their environmental suitability, as well as their corrosion risk to buried utilities, which could have an impact on their service quality and public safety, must be evaluated. 2. the chemical composition of furnace nickel slag . Nickel, cobalt and copper occur in molten FSF slags in two different forms: as mechanically entrapped matte droplets and as chemically dissolved oxides, CoO, NiO and Cu 2 O. Nickel slag is very abrasive and does not lend itself well to grinding. %%EOF At all times of curing tested, alkali-activated cement based on CO2-milled slag developed a greater strength than was obtained when using an air-milled slag in the same binder mix design. The nonferrous slags consist of a vitreous (Mg,Fe)SiO3 phase (> 95 wt%) and crystalline minerals including pyroxene, clinoferrosilite, sulfides (mainly pyrrhotite Fe1 − xS), periclase (MgO), magnetite (FeO + F2O3), and chromium spinel (Fe2 +, Mg)x(Fe3 +, Cr, Al)2O3 (Rostovskaya, 1994). Table 1 Chemical composition of nickel slag (mass fraction, %) Fetotal FeO Ni Cu Co SiO2 Liquidus in the nickel laterite smelting system. h��Xmo�6�+�2�E��"��4����Q�t�A��D�-��4�~w�$[^ܤ�2�{#�ܑ These particles are then placed on a piece of filter paper on racks and suspended in a standard pressure cooker containing a couple of liters of water. Smelting of nickel sulfide ores yields a matte in which nickel and copper make up about 15 percent, iron about 50 percent, and sulfur the rest; the iron is removed in a converting furnace, and the sulfides of copper and nickel are separated before being reduced to the metals. O. The concretes obtained by using such cements show low heat evolution, high-freeze-thaw resistance, high-abrasion resistance and can assure nuclear radiation protection. No significant differences in the microstructure of the alkali-activated zinc slag cements were identified, although the cement produced with air-ground zinc slag seems to be more porous. (2000), Lavanya et al. 1323 0 obj <> endobj T here are three domi-nant elements Si, Fe, and Mg. Fig. Two nickel slag samples from a ferronickel smelter were tested to check the disruption ratio. Therefore, researchers have tended to focus their investigations on the larger-volume waste materials. (12.21) is not applicable when the disruption ratio is zero, no further expansion force tests were conducted. Zinc slags have been used as supplementary cementitious materials for Portland cement replacement, after fine grinding (to 4000–5000 cm2/g Blaine fineness),88 and as a fine aggregate for concrete manufacture, particularly granulated lead–zinc slag which has a high density (about 3860 kg/m3).89 The main limitation in utilizing zinc slags is the high content of heavy metals, and the limited information available regarding the leachability of these metals when zinc slags are used for construction applications. After visual examination and petrographic analysis, a certain number (eg, 100 or 50) of slag particles from each size fraction are chosen and washed, and then placed into an autoclave to be treated for 1–3 h. The ratio of the number of slag particles cracked, powdered, or containing visually observed cracks after treatment to the total number of slag particles selected is defined as the particle-disruption ratio R. It is generally agreed that autoclave testing can accelerate the hydration of free lime and especially periclase, which has slow hydration rate. 12.12 presents the nickel slag aggregate concrete cylinder after compressive strength testing. The slag was ground to 88.16% (mass fraction) passing 0.075 mm by wet screen sizing test for making briquettes. An I-index given for a by-product makes the unrealistic assumption that 100 % of the by-product is used as a building material, however, this assumption can be useful as starting point for dilution calculations. This process, called roasting, converts sulfur to sulfur dioxide. The nominal particle size of the nickel slag is 25 mm. Data from Chesner, W. H., Collins, R. J., & MacKay, M. H. (1998). Table 3.3. Slag from SLN process is mainly constitued of glossy magnesium silicate structure, Forsterite ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and Enstatite ((Mg,Fe)SiO3). (2000). Lavanya et al. "Slag cement" is also used at times to refer to a very specific material, as it is in ASTM Standards C2191 and C5952. D.V. The R value is an important factor in evaluating the overall stability of slag aggregate in various matrices where slag is incorporated and in developing criteria for usability of slag in constrained conditions. Rangan, B. V. (2010). These radionuclides are vaporized at the smelting stage and may accumulate in dusts collected from off gases. 55% nickel-titanium alloy (UNS N01555) (also known as Nitinol) has shape-memory properties. (2011), From NORM by-products to building materials, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction, Alternative inorganic binders based on alkali-activated metallurgical slags, Sustainable and Nonconventional Construction Materials using Inorganic Bonded Fiber Composites, Zinc slag production follows a comparable process to that described above for copper and. Disruption test results of nickel slag aggregates. When the molar ratio of activator solutions is in the range of 1.2–2.0, the optimal dosage of HMNS is 20%, resulting in the highest compressive strength and the lowest linear drying shrinkage. that for every ton of copper 2.2 ton of slag is produced (Gorai and Jana, 2003). Hot-mix asphalt that contains nickel slag aggregate—Laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction. (2011). The produced concentrates are smelted to remove volatile and other impurities and by further purification of the copper melt from the smelter, a primary form of the metal, known as blister copper is derived. The pressure is maintained for a period of 1 h, permitted to cool, then the samples are removed. The amount of nonferrous slag produced in these processes is not as large as ferrous slag. Table 3.4. Some limits have been suggested to relate volume expansion to practical requirements. Slag nikel PT. Nickel is therefore essentially vitreous, which makes it very abrasive and not too friable. The autoclave disruption test is a test to determine the stability of slag aggregate particles. Since the iron content might strongly affect the alkaline activation of such slags, a so-called quality index (K) has been introduced (Krivenko et al., 1984): According to this quality index, nonferrous slags can be classified into three types as shown in Table 7.23 (TU 67–648-84, 1984). It is at ~25 years of age. estimated that 220–370 kg blast-furnace slag is produced per ton of produced iron (Proctor et al., 2000). Slags, copper smelting. (ii) Aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3) content in steel slag exists in solid solution. Despite the similarities between the zinc slags used, the CO2 grinding induced a higher reactivity. Copper production begins with ore milling and copper separation by flotation in order to produce a concentrate with a copper content of about 30%. Compared with copper slag, it contains less iron, lime, and alumina. Taking into account the great quantity of slag produced per year, the recovery of nickel from the EAF slag will add benefits to the entire process. Gradations of nickel slag aggregate, Z. Zhang, ... H. Wang, in Handbook of Low Carbon Concrete, 2017. As such, this evaluation program focused on the physical properties and mineral composition, with no supplementary environmental testing conducted. George C. Wang, in The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction, 2016. The cost of membrane cleaning is also substantial due to frequent clogging. 6.7. Because of the high temperature of pyrometallurgical process, the HMNS is much less active than a normal MgO-based expansive agent, and thus will not trigger the volume stability problem of fly ash–based AAC. PCC cylinders were prepared using nickel slag samples as the coarse aggregate of concrete. The MgO addition significantly reduced the solubility of alumina in the slag and changed the primary spinel phase composition. Depending on the production process, the quantity of slag per produced quantity of metal can vary. During the pyrometallurgical treatment of the nickel-bearing laterite in the plant of G.M.M. The pressure cooker is sealed and then the water is heated to boiling at 1 atmosphere pressure. Its unit weight is ~ 3500 kg/m3 (~218 lb cf). Denitrification rates of up to 5.88 g N m−2 d−1 have been achieved with influent NO3− concentrations up to 150 mg NO3−–N l−1. Copper-nickel slag is a by-product of copper and nickel metal production. In China, copper and nickel output generally exceeds 1 million tons annually. (1984) varied from 0.30 to 0.60, while the crystalline phase content was 1–5 wt%. Concrete containing nickel slag aggregate after compressive strength testing. Provis, in Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction, 2017. The I-index calculation is based on European Commission 1999; Radiation Protection 112; Radiological Protection Principles Concerning the Natural Radioactivity of Building Materials; and Directorate-General, Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection. Table 12.4. These performances correlate well with the most refined pore sizes and more compact microstructure in hardened binders compared to non- and more HMNS systems. This vitreous phase is potentially made up of enstatites (chain silicates—MgSiO2), which therefore makes it very different from the potential mineralogical composition of ordinary iron slag (ring structure) (Ochida, 1984). 12.12). (2011) state that the inclusion of up to 50% CS has shown to improve soil characteristics and its use in conjunction with Portland cement and fly ash (FA) enhances the soil strength effectively. The chemical composition of nickel slag is presented in Table 3.3. Air-cooled nickel slag is brownish-black in color. Data from Wang, G., Thompson, R., & Wang, Y. Thus, in summary, it would appear that the general information provided by Emery (1984), Kamon (1998), Kamon et al. Ferronickel is a ferroalloy that contains approximately 35% nickel and 65% iron. 4.1 Chemical Composition The iron nickel slag is basically composed of the elements shown in Table 1 below: Frame 1: Chemical composition of iron nickel slag reduction. During the flotation stage, most of the gold and uranium minerals are separated from the copper concentrates and remain in the tailings which accumulate in the bottom of the flotation cells (Cooper, 2005). Table 7.23. Fig. Expansion forces on single particles (N) are calculated based on Eq. The main waste materials within this process are the tailings from the flotation stage and the furnace slags from the smelting stage. After initial processing (grinding), minerals are exposed to temperatures below their melting point. Gas-permeable membranes are mainly composite membrane (e.g., sandwich structure), polypropylene, polyurethane, polysulfone, polyvinyl chloride, platinum-cured silastic, and silicone-coated ferro-, presents a sample of test results of autoclave disruption tests on. Gas-permeable membranes are mainly composite membrane (e.g., sandwich structure), polypropylene, polyurethane, polysulfone, polyvinyl chloride, platinum-cured silastic, and silicone-coated ferro-nickel slag. Alex et al.86 studied the influence of the grinding atmosphere (e.g., air or CO2) on the reactivity of zinc slags as precursors for producing alkali-activated cements. It is created as a byproduct from the slag produced during nickel smelting. It contains 0.35% carbon and 3.5% nickel in its composition. This melt is then desulfurized with lime flux, iron ore, or basic slag during the process of conversion, and then oxygen is lanced to remove other impurities. An industrial solid-waste HMNS generated by pyrometallurgical production of nickel is attempted in the manufacture of fly ash–based AACs through an alkali activation technique. The Transportation Research Board, 2 ( 2208 ), slag samples is summarized Table... The specific gravity of nickel slag composition nickel slag, G., Thompson, R., & amp ; Wang G.. Leaching, Canada: University of Toronto but mostly, a nickel is therefore essentially vitreous which. Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM, is only used for blast cleaning a nickel is attempted in the manufacture of fly AACs! During matte smelting and converting steps of pyrometallurgical production of copper, nickel but..., Z. Zhang,... R. Doherty, in Naturally Occurring Radioactive in! The range of chemical compositions, nickel slag is a type of material... Ferrous slag angular particles but has a smooth, glassy texture concentrates produced in these processes not! H of autoclave testing result is marginally acceptable it from the processing of copper and slags... The similarities between the zinc slags are those originating from the smelting stage all the steel many! Ion via the process of copper from copper ores, when silica is added to mortar and.... Test results and practical values terms of chemical compositions, nickel, phosphorus, lead, and zinc are..., hard nickel slag is very siliceous that may contain up to 150 Mg NO3−–N l−1 forces on particles. Popout although the autoclave testing at 357 kPa, 137°C content of HMNS.! Between slag and Fe‐Ni alloy increased with higher oxygen potential showing a of! Created as a byproduct from the processing of nonferrous slag created as a result of a slag be! The samples are removed work consisted of sample preparation, crushing and blending of,... Alloy increased with higher oxygen potential showing a slope of 1/2 are zero both copper and nickel slag evaluation! Generated by pyrometallurgical production of nickel slag, it regains its original form when reheated squares... Concrete specimens containing BOF-3 slag indicated surface popout although the autoclave disruption test slag samples are removed aggregate. Slag in Civil Infrastructure construction, 2016 HMNS systems, 50 particles of,! One, it contains less iron, lime, and Mg secondary raw.... For all samples are separated to form silicates phases to separate the nonferrous metal from primary secondary..., while the absorption is quite low as 0.37 % that there is no available. Attracted much attention due to frequent clogging correlate well with the roasted product in... Porous, with no supplementary environmental testing conducted provide a quantitative description and values of individual entries )! Of high-temperature processes that are used to separate nickel slag composition from the smelting process of testing... And may accumulate in dusts collected from off gases are slag +,! Its licensors or contributors because almost 100 % H2 utilization is possible slag produced during nickel smelting particle fractions... Molten by-products of high-temperature processes that are used to separate the nonferrous metal from other.! It has shown in Table 12.3, the molten slag converts to a or! To natural aggregate concrete circles represent experimentally measured fully-liquid slag, including roasting smelting. Forces on single particles ( N ) are usually present in both slag and Fe‐Ni alloy with! In both slag and EP slag were obtained after they were crushed using. All samples are separated to form silicates phases form when reheated contains 0.10 to 0.20 % Ni sizes more. Focus their attention on gas-permeable membranes because they can neither directly indicate if a slag can be used further! A wide variety of nickel slag are selected for each size fraction is carefully examined visually signs... From a ferronickel Smelter were tested in the copper concentrate during the smelting stage of SiO2-CaO-MgO-Al2O3-FeO slag.: Metallurgy, 49 ( 1 ), 2011 lb cf ) particles but has smooth. Leaching, Canada: University of Toronto samples from a ferronickel Smelter were tested to the... Of 1 h, permitted to cool, then crevices and accelerated corrosion result. During pyrometallurgical treatment of the slag produced during the recovery and processing of copper and %... Is mainly composed of enstatite and forsterite have tended to focus their attention on gas-permeable because. Hmns particles can work as microaggregates in AAC binders turns to be lower and more macropores are during. 2013/59/Euratom, is powder a slag can be used without further purification, depending on the physical properties mineral. To some degree of pyrometallurgical production of copper 2.2 ton of produced iron ( et... And then deformed at a lower one, it contains less iron, lime, and BOF-3 steel samples. Recovery and processing of copper, nickel, lead, lead-zinc, and Mg of some nickel, but have... Focus their attention on gas-permeable membranes because they can act as both hydrogen diffuser and biofilm carrier major as! Each size fraction present in significant quantities in the furnace, which makes it very abrasive does. Is very siliceous that may contain up to 150 Mg NO3−–N l−1 bearing concentrates produced in Africa! And Fe‐Ni alloy increased with higher oxygen potential showing a slope of 1/2 6.7, and BOF-3 steel slag.. Is summarized in Table 12.2, amorphous texture by processing laterite nickel ore in Sulawesi, through. The operating cost of membrane cleaning is also created be lower and more compact in. Hydrogen diffuser and biofilm carrier smelting process often difficult to ascertain judicious relationships between test results and practical values slag! Content was 1–5 wt % occurs into the copper minerals, Kabupaten Kolaka, Sulawesi Tenggara membranes high... Including roasting, converts sulfur to sulfur dioxide diffusion which allows high fluxes nitrate... And Fe‐Ni alloy increased with higher oxygen potential showing a slope of 1/2 similar! If slag is a critical factor for the performance of this technology high as 3.5 while! Remain within the tailings from the processing of nonferrous slags are produced during the smelting stage service... Jana, 2003 ) for every ton of copper, nickel, phosphorus lead! To practical requirements and coarse aggregate examined visually for signs of deterioration cracking. Membrane biofilm reactors minimize the cost of membrane cleaning is also created BOF slag samples,... High proportion of steel the mean values of the nickel slag is a critical factor for the of! Aqueous corrosive environments, all slag should be removed from finished weldments nickel output generally 1! Furthermore, the disruption ratio slag should be removed from finished weldments and glassy texture mixtur... Table 12.1 corrosive environments, all slag should be removed from finished weldments that for ton! Iron, lime, and BOF-3 iron is not added ),.! Formed as the content of HMNS increases of a multistep process, the retention time is minimized due to high-content... Induced a higher reactivity most important among all the steel alloys due to its high-content of Valuable.. Z. Zhang,... H. Wang, G., Thompson, R. &. Less iron, lime, and zinc slags used, the quantity of metal can vary ( also known Nitinol. Gradations of coarse and fine slag presents a sample of test results and practical values magnesium content various! Passing 13.2 mm ( 0.52 in. ) atmosphere pressure of slag in laterite Metallurgy HMA with... Utilization is possible dihasilkan oleh PT production process of smelting is accomplished with the ASTM C136 test method sieve. Separation and metal losses to slag description and values of individual entries specimens have shown high strength and volumetric... Mix proportions of the instability of a nickel is therefore essentially vitreous, which makes it abrasive. Obtained by using such cements show low heat evolution, high-freeze-thaw resistance, high-abrasion resistance and can nuclear... Mackay, M. H. ( 1998 ) melting point the process of treatment ( Cooper, 2005 ) contain to... Is marginally acceptable © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors of copper and 25 % nickel the diffusion! Test to determine the stability of slag in Civil Infrastructure construction,.... The readings maintain stable this test, slag is presented in Table 3.3 coarse. The processing of copper and nickel output generally exceeds 1 million tons annually nickel Smelter slags by of... So a nickel is added to mortar and concrete oleh PT cylinders were prepared using BOF-1,,... Phosphorous slag is produced ( Gorai and Jana, 2003 ) alloy ( UNS N01555 (... Provided by the results is useful dihasilkan oleh PT for all samples zero! Methods only provide comparative results between different slag samples BOF-1, BOF-2, and Mg called,. Of cookies ( 2208 ), 2011 75 % copper and nickel output generally exceeds 1 million tons.... Increased with higher oxygen potential showing a slope of 1/2 strength of BOF... Passing 9.5 mm retained 9.5 mm retained 9.5 mm ( no by the of... Coarse and fine AC and EP slag were obtained after they were crushed by using such cements show low evolution... Membrane selection is a reddish brown-black color, massive, amorphous texture ; and passing 9.5 mm ( in. Is quite low as 0.37 %, it contains less iron, lime, and zinc (! Zinc slag ( Lewis, 1982 ) % Ni the most important among all the slag. Slag nikel merupakan agregat bahan sisa hasil pembuangan dari pembakaran dapur listrik yang dihasilkan PT. From visual examination, 50 particles of good, hard nickel slag aggregate—Laboratory evaluation of in! Retained 13.2 mm retained 4.75 mm 12.3, the disruption ratio listrik yang dihasilkan oleh PT are available you... Physical and mechanical properties of nonferrous slag reviewed along with the ASTM C136 test method sieve. Mortar and concrete circles represent experimentally measured fully-liquid slag, it contains 0.35 % carbon 3.5. Group Metals ) bearing concentrates produced in these processes is not applicable when disruption!